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This book introduces the fundamental concepts necessary for designing, using, and implementing database systems and database applications. Our presentation stresses the fundamentals of database modeling and design, the languages and models provided by the database management systems, and database system implementation techniques.

FUNDAMENTALS OF Database Systems

The book is meant to be used as a textbook for a one- or two-semester course in database systems at the junior, senior, or graduate level, and as a reference book. The goal is to provide an in-depth and up-to-date presentation of the most important aspects of database systems and applications, and related technologies. It is assumed that readers are familiar with elementary programming and data-structuring concepts and that they have had some exposure to the basics of computer organization.

CSIS 1050 - Fundamentals of Database Design and Processing Credits: 3 Course provides introduction & broad overview of concepts & basic skills in current database technologies to prepare students for further studies in database programming, application development & administration/management of database systems.Recommended Prerequisite: CSIS 1020 Semester: Fall & SpringClick here for searchable class schedule

A database management system (DBMS) is a complex, generic software module whose function is to simplify the tasks associated with designing, creating, managing, querying, updating, and modifying a database. It is generic because the same DBMS software can be used for many different database applications, whether it is a UNIVERSITY database, an AIRLINES database, or any other database application. It is complex because it involves many tasks at various levels. At the external levels, it has modules and languages for defining a database schema, for interacting with the database via high-level query languages or API programming interfaces, for specifying security and authorization rules, and many other tasks. At the internal levels, it has modules for concurrency control and recovery, for distribution and replication of the data, and for efficient optimization of complex queries via indexes and other efficient storage structures...

With the explosion of web and cloud technologies, databases have evolved from traditional relational databases to more advanced types of databases such as NoSQL, columnar, key-value, hierarchical, and distributed databases. Each type has the ability to handle structured, semi-structured, and even unstructured data.

On top of that, databases are continuously handling mission-critical and sensitive data. When this is coupled with compliance requirements and the distributed nature of most data sets, managing databases has become highly complex. As a result, organizations require robust, secure, and user-friendly tools to maintain these databases.

A database management system (DBMS) is a software tool that enables users to manage a database easily. It allows users to access and interact with the underlying data in the database. These actions can range from simply querying data to defining database schemas that fundamentally affect the database structure.

All these administrative tasks are facilitated using a single management interface. Most modern DBMS support handling multiple database workloads from a centralized DBMS software, even in a distributed database scenario. Furthermore, they allow organizations to have a governable top-down view of all the data, users, groups, locations, etc., in an organized manner.

All DBMS comes with various integrated components and tools necessary to carry out almost all database management tasks. Some DBMS software even provides the ability to extend beyond the core functionality by integrating with third-party tools and services, directly or via plugins.

A database access language is required for interacting with a database, from creating databases to simply inserting or retrieving data. A proper DBMS must support one or multiple query languages and language dialects. Structured query language (SQL) and MongoDB Query Language (MQL) are two query languages that are used to interact with the databases.

This is the intermediary between the user queries and the database. The query processor interprets the queries of users and makes them actionable commands that can be understood by the database to perform the appropriate functionality.

The optimization Engine allows the DBMS to provide insights into the performance of the database in terms of optimizing the database itself and queries. When coupled with database monitoring tools, it can provide a powerful toolset to gain the best performance out of the database.

This is the centralized catalog of all the objects within the database. When an object is created, the DBMS keeps a record of that object with some metadata about it using the metadata catalog. Then, this record can be used to:

This component will keep all the logs of the DBMS. These logs will consist of user logins and activity, database functions, backups and restore functions, etc. The log manager ensures all these logs are properly recorded and easily accessible.

Reporting and monitoring tools are another standard component that comes with a DBMS. Reporting tools will enable users to generate reports while monitoring tools enable monitoring the databases for resource consumption, user activity, etc.

This is the most common type of DBMS. They are used to interact with databases that contain structured data in a table format with predefined relationships. Moreover, they use structured query language (SQL) to interact with databases. Microsoft SQL, MySQL, and Oracle Database are some popular DBMS that come under this category.

These DoDBMS are used to manage databases that contain data stored in JSON-like structures with limited or no relationship structure. They are powered by query languages such as MongoDB query language (MQL) for database operations. MongoDB, Azure Cosmos DB are some prominent examples of DoDBMS.

As the name suggests, this type of DBMS is used to manage columnar databases that store data in columns instead of rows, emphasizing high performance. Some databases that use columnar format are Apache Cassandra, Apache HBase, etc.

DBMS was introduced to solve the fundamental issues associated with storing, managing, accessing, securing, and auditing data in traditional file systems. Software users and organizations can gain the following benefits by using DBMS:

DBMS provides the ability to control users and enforce policies for security and compliance management. This controlled user access increases the database security and makes the data less vulnerable to security breaches.

DBMS enables users to access the database securely regardless of their location. Thus, they can handle any database-related task promptly without the need for complex access methods or worrying about database security. On top of that, DBMS allows multiple users to collaborate effectively when interacting with the database.

DBMS enables users to change the physical schema of a database without changing the logical schema that governs database relationships. As a result, organizations can scale the underlying database infrastructure without affecting the database operations.

Most databases have built-in backup and recovery tools. Yet, DBMS offers centralized tools to facilitate backup and recovery functionality more conveniently and thereby provide a better user experience. Securing data has become easier than ever with functionality like:

DBMS provides a single interface to carry out all the management and monitoring tasks, thus simplifying the workload of database administrators. These tasks can range from database creation and schema modifications to reporting and auditing.

DBMS is an essential component for any organization when it comes to managing databases. The scale, complexity, and feature set of a DBMS will depend on the specific DBMS and requirements of the organizations.

With different DBMS providing different feature sets, it is paramount that organizations rigorously evaluate the DBMS software before committing to a single system. However, a properly configured DBMS will greatly simplify the management and maintenance of databases at any scale.

In computing, a database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The design of databases spans formal techniques and practical considerations, including data modeling, efficient data representation and storage, query languages, security and privacy of sensitive data, and distributed computing issues, including supporting concurrent access and fault tolerance.

A database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses the core facilities provided to administer the database. The sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a database system. Often the term "database" is also used loosely to refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database.

Computer scientists may classify database management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s. These model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, and the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, collectively referred to as NoSQL, because they use different query languages.

Formally, a "database" refers to a set of related data and the way it is organized. Access to this data is usually provided by a "database management system" (DBMS) consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database (although restrictions may exist that limit access to particular data). The DBMS provides various functions that allow entry, storage and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. 041b061a72

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